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SEPTEMBER 15, 2013

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Important International Organizations -03


African Union (AU)


The African Union consists of 53 African states. The only all-African state which is not a member in the AU is Morocco. Established in 2002, the AU was formed as a suc­cessor to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states.


HQ: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


The Arab League


The Arab League is a voluntary association of countries which are mainly Arabic speaking. It was formally instituted in 1945.


Member countries (21): Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Ku­wait, Lebanon, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, and Republic of Yemen.


HQ : Cairo, Egypt


Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC)


The Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) was founded in 1989 to promote co-operation in trade and investment among nations of the region and the rest of the world.


HQ: Singapore


Asian Development Bank


The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established in 1966 to facilitate economic de­velopment Asian countries. It has 67 member countries-48 regional and 19 non-regional members.


In 1974, ADB launched the Asian Development Fund (ADF) with a view to providing concessional credit to needy members.


HQ: Manila, Philippines


The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)


Members (10): Brunei, Darussalam, Cambo­dia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam.


The Association of South East Asian Na­tions (ASEAN) is a regional organization formed by the governments of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand through the Bangkok Declaration signed by the Foreign Ministers of ASEAN countries in 1967. Its aim is to accelerate economic progress and maintain the economic stability of South East Asia.


HQ: Jakarta, Indone­sia


Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM)


Established in 1973, its aim is to further mutual co-operation in economics, health, education, culture, science and technology and tax administration, as well as foreign policy.


HQ: Georgetown (Guyana)


Commonwealth of Independent States


Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was formed in 1991 whose participating countries are former Soviet Republics, created aftre the break-up of the erstwhile Soviet Union.


It has 10 full members and one participating member Ukraine. The full mem­bers are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan


HQ: Belarus


The Commonwealth


Formerly called the British Common­wealth of Nations, the Commonwealth is a loose association of former British colonies, dependencies and other territories. An exception is Mozambique, which has no historical ties with Britain.


The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings (CHOGM) are held every two years to discuss issues of common interest.


Founded: 1931; Members: 53 states

HQ (Secretariat): London


European Union (a k a the European Community)


Members (27): Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Esto­nia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Ro­mania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands, United Kingdom.


The European Union (EU) is a sui gen­eris political body, comprising 27 member states. It covers a large part of the European continent. Between 1973 and 2007, there were six waves of en­largement, bringing the current member­ship to 27.


In 2004, its membership rose from 15 to 25. The ten new countries which joined the EU in 2004 are: Cyprus, the Czech Re­public, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. Bul­garia and Romania joined in 2007.


The Euro is the official currency in 17 European Union countries: Belgium, Estonia, Ger­many, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Por­tugal, Slovenia, Finland, Cyprus, Malta and Slovakia.


HQ: Brussels, Belgium


European Space Research Organisation


The European Space Research Organisation (ESRO) was formally established in 1964 to promote collaboration among European States in space research for peaceful purposes. Its mem­bers are Belgium, Denmark, France, West Germany Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and UK. Austria, Ire­land and Norway participate as observers.


HQ: Paris




The G-20 is a grouping of finance ministers and central bank governors from 20 econo­mies: 19 of the world's largest national economies apart from the European Union (EU). Collectively, the G-20 economies make up 85% of global GDP, 80% of global trade (including EU intra trade) and 66% of the world population.


The G-20 works without any permanent secretariat or staff. The chair rotates annu­ally among the members and is selected from a different regional grouping of coun­tries.


The members of G-20 include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Af­rica, South Korea, Turkey, The UK, The USA. The 20th member is the Eu­ropean Union.


Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC)


Members (6): Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar and Bahrain.


The Gulf Co-operation Council is a loose political and economic al­liance made up of six Gulf states. It aims to boost economic cooperation among members and, through collective security, to guard against any threat from neigh­bouring states and from Islamic terrorism.


The GCC was formed in 1981 after the Islamic revolu­tion in Iran and the Iraq-Iran war. Its mem­bers have a similar political system and a common socio-cultural outlook. They are autocratic monarchies or sheikhdoms, with little or no mass political par­ticipation.


HQ: Riyadh


International Air Transport Association (IATA)


The International Air Transport Association (IATA) was founded in 1945 to promote safer and more economical air transport and to provide a forum for collaboration. All its members are international and domestic airlines.


 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)


Conceived at the Bretton Woods Confer­ence in 1944, the World Bank began working in 1946. The World Bank provides financial and techni­cal help to developing nations around the world. The World Bank consists up of unique development institu­tions owned by 187 member countries - The International Bank for Reconstruc­tion and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA).


HQ: Washington, D.C.


International Monetary Fund (IMF)


The International Monetary Fund was es­tablished in 1945 as an indepen­dent organisation which began working in 1947. The IMF aims to protect eco­nomic stability and to tackle or financial crises. With time, its focus has shifted to the developing world.


HQ: Wash­ington, D.C.



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