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POPULAR SCIENTIFIC TERMS - 01

PUBLISHED BY: SURENDER KUMAR
OCTOBER 25, 2012

   
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SCIENTIFIC TERMS

 

ABSOLUTE ZERO

The starting point of the Absolute Temperature scale (Kelvin Scale), where all molecular motion stops.

 

 

ARTIFICIAL GRAVITY

The creation of centrifugal force by causing a craft-like object to slowly rotate. This is an attempt to simulate the natural environment.

 

 

ASTRONAUT

One who travels on flights into the outer space. The word Cosmonaut is its equivalent in Russian language.

 

 

ATOMIC FISSION

The splitting of a heavy nucleus into two smaller units, thus yielding a great amount of heat and light energy. For example, in an atomic reactor, a Uranium nucleus is bombarded with neutrons, which cause its nucleus to split into lighter nuclei. In this process, a certain amount of mass disappears, converting itself into energy according to Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence formula.

 

 

ATOMIC FISSION

The fusing together of two lighter nuclei to create a bigger nucleus, thus creating a great amount of energy in the process. For example, on the surface of the Sun, two Hydrogen nuclei fuse together to create a Helium nucleus. In this process, a certain amount of mass disappears, converting itself into energy according to Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence formula.

 

 

COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE

A satellite equipped to act as a relay station for a Transmitter and Receiver Station pair thousands situated miles apart. Such satellites are put in an orbit positioned at 36000 kilometre away from the earth and they move with the earth's rotational speed to enable the trasnmission of signals.

D

 

DOCKING

The joining together of two units, launched separately, in the outer space. It requires a very careful selection of the orbit and speed of the chasing vehicle to catch up with the vehicle being chased.

 

 

ESCAPE VELOCITY

A speed of about 25,000 miles an hour or 11.2 kilometre per second. A rocket launched with this minimum speed breaks away from the gravitational pull and travels in a path that takes it right away from the earth.

 

 

GEIGER COUNTER

A device to measure the level of radiation. Commonly used in nuclear reactors and scientific experiments involving nuclear recations.

 

 

HEAT OF RE-ENTRY

The heat generated by friction between the surface of the earth and the air molecules when a spacecraft re-enters the earth’s atmosphere after completing its journey.

 

 

JET PROPULSION

A kind of motion which works on Newton’s Third Law. A jet of particles is released out of a nozzle, with the resultant reaction of the craft moving in the opposite direction.

 

 

MISSILE

Any object launched with the goal of striking a defined target.

 

 

PRESSURE SUIT

A special suit worn by astronauts to protect themselves against a sudden loss of cabin pressure which may stop oxygen supply and create bubbles in his circulatory system and prove fatal.

 

 

QUANTUM THEORY

Max Planck's theory that all electromagnetic radiation is emitted in tiny packets of energy called quanta.

 

 

ROCKET

A device that can produce thrust by burning fuel to move itself as a result of the reaction.

 

 

SPACE SUIT

A special suit to provide the necessary emergency environment for an astronaut in case of cabin pressure failure. If he wishes to move outside and around the ship as it travels through space, he wears the suit temporarily while in space.

 

 

WEIGHTLESSNESS  

The absence of weight due to other forces being applied to neutralize the force of weight. It is generally felt far away from a strong gravitational field in a region of weak fields. A routine phenomenon during space travel.

 



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