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Geographical And Astronomical Terms - 03 - L - P

OCTOBER 17, 2013

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Geographical And Astronomical Terms - 03 - L - P



A shallow lake at the mouth of a river or near the sea, which is separated from it by sand e.g. Chilka in Odisha.




An extensive sheet of water enclosed by land, which occupies a hollow in the earth’s surface.




The hard crust of the earth on which we live. The solid globe of the earth as separated from the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The lithosphere occupies only 29 % surface of the earth but is very important to man and other living beings as it creates conditions suitable for habitation.


Latitude and Parallels of Latitude


The angular distance measured north and south of the equator. The parallels of latitude are the lines on a map parallel to the equator.




The regions where water-laden winds descend and become warm. Consequently, there is little or no rainfall on the leeward side.


Shillong lies on the leeward side getting only 60 inches rainfall, while Cherapunji, on the windward side, receives 600 inches rainfall.


Light Year


The distance travelled by light in one year. Light travels @ 3, 00, 000 km / second. It is a unit for measuring astronomical distances.


Local Time


The time at any point on the earth’s surface, which is calculated from the position of the sun at mid-day.


Longitude and Lines of Longitude


Longitude refers to the angular distance measured east or west of the prime meridian. Lines of longitudes are the lines on a map or globe joining the north pole and the south pole, which cut the equator at right angles.


Lunar Eclipse


The result of the earth’s coming between the sun and the moon.





The melted mass of rock, which gives rise to




Imaginary lines which join the two poles and cut the equator at right angles.


Midnight Sun


In the Arctic zone, the sun is visible even at midnight in summer. That’s why Norway is called the Land of Midnight sun.




Water drops in the lower layers of the atmosphere, caused by the condensed water vapours.




Seasonal winds, which blow from the Indian Ocean over south-eastern and eastern Asia and bring heavy rainfall.




The rock material brought down by glaciers during their movement. When rock fragments, broken off by frost, fall from the sides of the valley on the ice, they form lateral moraines. In contrast, when two glaciers meet, the two adjacent moraines unite to form a medial moraine.


Neolithic Period


The late Stone Age marked by implements of polished stones.




A spot in the middle of a desert, which is rendered fertile on account of water present there.




The path of the earth or any other planet around the sun is called its orbit. It is slightly elliptical in shape.




Vast spread of treeless, grassy plains between the Andes and the Atlantic Ocean. Pretty common in Argentina.





The position of the earth or of another heavenly body in its orbit when it is at its closest to the sun. The earth reaches its perihelion during the northern winter.


Plutonic Rock


Plutonic rocks are formed by the cooling of the molten matter at some depth e.g. granite.




Elevated land rising abruptly, 3,000 to 4,000 ft. high, from the sea-level E.G. Deccan Plateau.




Treeless grasslands with tall grass e.g. Central and North America.




The total amount of water that falls at a particular place, be it as rain or snow or hail.


Prime Meridian


The prime or first meridian is the meridian from which longitude is measured. It passes through Greenwich.



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