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Geographical And Astronomical Terms - 02 - F - K

OCTOBER 17, 2013

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Geographical And Astronomical Terms - 02 - F - K





The animals found in any particular region are collectively called the fauna. The equivalent term for the plants in a specific region is the flora.




When moist air meets the earth’s cold surface, some water vapours condense on the dust particles in the air. This cloud of condensed vapour is called the fog.




It is the warm, dry wind, which descends on a mountain. Best known to occur in the northern Alps valley.




The remains of plants and animals, which are preserved in the rocks, or under the earth. It gives clues to the evolutionary changes in animal and plant life.




Frozen dew. In cold countries when the temperature of the earth falls below 32oF at night, the dew drops freeze and become frost.




A vast accumulation of ice and snow, which moves gradually down the valley, until it melts to form a river. There are four types of glaciers - (i) Valley glacier (ii) Piedmont (iii) Ice-cap and (iv) Continental




A fountain of hot water spewing out of a hole, which extends deep into the earth’s crust. The water is thrown high into the air by the steam formed deep down in the hole. It contains dissolved minerals, which get deposited around the hole.




A narrow passage between the hills formed by the erosion of the hills by rivers.


Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)


The local time of Greenwich Observatory, London (located on the zero meridian), which is the standard time for the British Isles. It is 5.30 hrs. behind the Indian Standard Time (IST).


Gulf Stream


A warm oceanic current along the eastern coast of North America which later moves towards the western coast of Europe, thus raising the temperature significantly. It is an expansion of the north equatorial warm current and meets the Labrador, a cold current at Newfoundland. Consequently, the mingling of the two currents produces fog, which reduces visibility.




The natural environment of a plant or animal in which it normally lives and thrives, such as warm seas, mountain tops, fresh waters etc.


High Seas


Those parts of the oceans, which do not fall under the jurisdiction of any particular nation.




A region inland from a seaport.




The circular line where the sky and the earth, or the sea appear to meet.


Horse Latitudes


The regions of calm between 30o to 35o north and south of the Equator.




The science of cultivating gardens, particularly fruits. Landscaping is also a part of horticulture.




The decomposed and semi-decomposed organic matter of organic (plant and animal origin) in the soil. This is essential to soil fertility.




An extremely violent gale marked by changes in wind speed, and sometimes thunder and lightning.




The liquid cover, which surrounds the earth. Hydrosphere makes about 70% of the earth’s surface. It comprises oceans, seas, bays, gulfs and lakes.


Ice Age


A period in which ice-sheets and glaciers covered large areas of the continents. The present ice-sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are relics of this Ice Age.




A large ice mass detached from the glacier and floating in the sea.




The dome-shaped hut of snow in which the Eskimos live.




A small bay or creek (a small opening into the coastline).




The lines on a map joining places with the same atmospheric pressure.




The lines on a chart connecting parts of the ocean with similar depth.




The lines on a map joining places having equal rainfall.




The lines on a map joining places with the small mean temperature.




A narrow stretch of land connecting two large land masses e.g. Isthmus of Panama.


Kuro Siwo


Warm oceanic current in the Pacific Ocean which flows near the eastern coast of Japan and ultimately moves along the western coast of Canada. Responsible for raising the temperature of Japan and Western Canada.



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