MEDICINE AND PHYSIOLOGY
Dr. Bruce A Beutler (US)
Jules Hoffmann (Luxembourg-France)
and Ralph Steinman (Canada)
for the discovery of key secrets in innate immunity. After announcement, it became known that Steiman had passed away three days ago but the committee would stick to the list.
Adam G. Riess (both of US),
and Brian Schmidt (US-Australian)
for discovering the accelerating expansion of the Universe. One-half of the prize of 10 mn. Swedish kronor goes to Saul Perlmutter; the other half is shared by Reiss and Schmidt.
Daniel Shechtman, an Israeli,
won the Chemistry Nobel for discovering quasi-crystals, material in which atoms are packed together in a well-defined pattern that never repeats.
Tomas Transtromer, Swedish poet,
whose work explores the themes of nature, isolation and identity. The citataion says that through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality. There are 15 collections of poetry by him, many of which have been translated into English and 60 other languages. He has worked for much of his life as a psychologist. After a stroke in 1990, he has mostly been unable to speak. A Swede has won the prize for the first time after 1974.
Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims, both of the USA,
for their work on macro-economics and government economic policy making.
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Leymeh Gbowee of Liberia
and Tawakkul Karman of Yemen
for their contribution to women's rights