After the invasion of Timur, Sultan Mohammed Tughlaq fled from Delhi. By the time he returned, the prestige of the throne had been shattered; in the neighborhood, ambitious nobles asserted their independence. Among the first to do so was Malik Sarwar, who had been a wazir in the Tughlaq administration. He had been nominated to the east with the title Malik-us-Sharq. (Lord of the East). His successors came to be called the Sharqis, who had their capital in Jaunpur, which they beautified with many magnificent palaces, mosques and mausoleums. They were great patrons of art and learning. Over time, Jaunpur came to be known as the Shiraz of the East. Malik Mohammed Jaisi, the author of the well-known Padmavat, lived at Jaunpur.
But in Delhi itself, a new Afghan dynasty arose. Behlul Lodi was an important ruler, who had crowned himself in 1451. Behlul Lodi’s energies were mainly spent in contesting against the Sharqis, whom he hated. However, the most important Lodi ruler was Sikandar Lodi (1489-1517). He was able to establish effective administration and was famous for his sense of justice. He established a new yard for measurement called the gazz-i-Sikandari, which continued till Mughal times. Sikandar Lodi is thought to be a bigoted and orthodox king. He re-imposed the jaziya on the Hindus. Sikandar Lodi selected the site for the city of Agra. In course of time, it became the second capital of the Lodhis.